Colloquia Archives

Jeff Newman (University of Pittsburgh)
Thursday, April 3, 2014
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
Exploring the Milky Way and the Universe with Extragalactic Surv
Abstract:
Determining the global properties of the Milky Way presents unique challenges, primarily due to our position embedded within its disk. As a result our knowledge of many basic properties of the Galaxy, including itscolor and luminosity, has remained limited. In this talk, I will describe how we have developed improved determinations of the total stellar mass (M) and star formation rate (SFR) of the Milky Way using Hierarchical Bayesian statistical techniques. We then use the results, in combination with data from SDSS, to better determine the Galaxy's luminosity and integrated color. We exploit the close relationship between galaxies' photometric properties and their total stellar mass and star formation rate. We thus select a sample of Milky Way analog galaxies designed to match the best Galactic M and SFR measurements, including measurement uncertainties. Applying the Copernican assumption that the Milky Way should not be special amongst galaxies of similar properties, the color and luminosity distribution of these Galactic analogs then constrains the properties of our own Galaxy much more tightly than previous measurements. In the remaining time, I will describe the next steps in large spectroscopic surveys of the distant universe. I will provide an overview of the eBOSS project, a component of the next-generation SDSS-IV survey beginning observations this summer; eBOSS will obtain redshifts of ~650,000 galaxies and ~850,000 QSOs at 0.6 < z < 3.5 in order to study dark energy via the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) technique. I will also describe plans for DESI, the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, which may be used for a survey of >20 million galaxies and QSOs, placing strong constraints on dark energy models via BAO early in the next decade.
Scott Chapman (Dalhousie University)
Thursday, March 27, 2014
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
The role of ultra-luminous galaxies in galaxy formation and evo
Abstract:
I will provide an overview of ultra-luminous galaxies (L_IR>1012 Lsun) at high redshift, and the different roles and properties they appear to exhibit as a function of their luminosity. I will focus on the molecular gas properties of the galaxies as the crucial fuel available for star formation, emphasizing our recent work with ALMA and the IRAM Plateau-de-Bure, where we have studied galaxies preselected at various wavelengths, and conducted blind surveys for CO gas. I will conclude with very wide field surveys (SPT) that are uncovering the most extreme specimens of star forming galaxies in the universe, and point to future facilities like CCAT which will push the field to a new level of understanding.
Pete Schloerb (UMass)
Thursday, March 13, 2014
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
Update on the Large Millimeter Telescope
Abstract:
I will provide an update on the status of the Large Millimeter Telescope. The LMT has begun a second season of "Early Science" observations with its new active surface system in place. The telescope and instruments are working well, and our understanding of the system and its performance have improved greatly over the past year. All in all, things are in good shape, and we have a millimeter-wave telescope that is very competitive with the world's other large millimeter-wave single dish telescopes. I will review the technical performance of the LMT and present some examples of scientific data obtained with the telescope. Then we will turn our attention to the future and present an overview of the completion plan for the full 50m telescope. Finally we will consider the long term future of LMT Observatory and the participation of astronomers from UMass and the US community in this endeavor.
Ranga-Ram Chary (Caltech)
Thursday, March 6, 2014
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
CSI-Los Angeles: The Growth of Distant Galaxies and Reionization
Abstract:
The discovery of an unusual population of galaxies with extremely strong nebular line emission has come as a panacea to several problems in galaxy evolution. These objects, classified as Halpha emitters, were first detected in the z>5 Universe in deep Spitzer imaging, where they dominate the spectroscopically confirmed star-forming galaxy population. Since then, they have been re-discovered in the local Universe in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey where they constitute 0.04% of the spectroscopic sample, and at intermediate redshifts using Hubble/WFC3 grism surveys. Their ubiquity in the distant Universe and the unusual properties of their stellar population make them strong candidates for being progenitors of massive galaxies at z~2 and for being the primary sources responsible for reionization. I will present our work in identifying these galaxies, insights into the mechanism for fueling star-formation in these objects and the resultant reionization history of the Universe. The merits of using multiwavelength observations in obtaining an improved understanding of high redshift galaxy populations will in particular be highlighted.
Junko Ueda (University of Tokyo and CfA)
Thursday, February 27, 2014
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
Probing the evolution of merger remnants through formation of c
Abstract:
It has been long predicted from numerical simulations that a major merger of two disk galaxies results in a formation of the spheroid-dominated early-type galaxy. Contrary to this classical scenario of galaxy merger evolution, recent simulations with more realistic gas physics have shown that not all of the major mergers will become an early-type galaxy, but some will reemerge as a disk dominated late-type galaxy. In order to check this scenario and look for observational evidence of a forming molecular disk, we investigate new and archival interferometric CO maps of 37 optically selected merger remnants in the local universe. The new maps are obtained toward 27 sources with ALMA, CARMA, and SMA. We find that 65 % (24/37) of the sample show kinematical signatures of the molecular gas disk in their velocity fields. However, the majority of the merger remnants except for a few shows a compact molecular gas disk relative to the stellar spheroidal component. Unless the disks grow significantly, for example from the return of ejected molecular gas or tidal HI gas, the majority will likely evolve into spheroid dominated early-type galaxies. We tentatively suggest that a few sources with extended gas disks may evolve into disk dominated late-type galaxies, if there are no further mechanism to transport the molecular gas toward the central region.
Joan Najita (NOAO, CfA)
Thursday, February 20, 2014
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
From Planetesimals to Giant Planets: Chemical and Dynamical Pro
Abstract:
Work with the Spitzer Space Telescope revealed that emission from water and organic molecules is commonly present in the mid-infrared spectra of disks surrounding young stars. I will describe how these features might be used to help lift the veil on a very early stage of planet formation, the formation of planetesimals, those theoretically fundamental but observationally elusive building blocks of planets in core accretion theory. I will also describe some results from high resolution spectroscopy that suggest that forming high-mass giant planets may reveal themselves through non-axisymmetric signatures of their presence, e.g., circumplanetary disks and eccentric inner rims.
Bethany Ehlmann (Caltech (joint with Physics))
Wednesday, February 12, 2014
4 p.m.
Hasbrouck 124
Title:
Following the Water on Mars, Roving with Curiosity
Abstract:
The last decade of Mars exploration with orbiters and rovers has revealed that liquid water was common during the first billion years of the planet's history with diverse aqueous, potentially habitable environments varying in space and time. Curiosity's landing in 2012 provides the opportunity to explore one set of these environments up-close: sedimentary deposits in 150-km Gale Crater. The 10-instrument suite on Curiosity is the most advanced sent to a planetary surface to date, and results from the first year and a half of exploration will be described, along with a look ahead to the coming years as Curiosity's trek continues.
Jason Tumlinson (STScI)
Thursday, February 6, 2014
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
The Circumgalactic Medium: A New Window on Galactic Fueling, Que
Abstract:
Why do some galaxies quench while others continue to form stars? Where is all the normal matter that galaxies should have, but don't? What happens to all the heavy elements that stars produce? The gas flows that feed galaxies and return their enriched products back to their environments are arguably the most important and least understood processes driving galaxy evolution. I will survey our group's results from Hubble's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the diffuse "Circumgalactic Medium" surrounding galaxies that reveal it to be a massive and richly structured medium with important roles as the mediator of galaxy accretion and feedback and a potential answer to some of these open questions about galaxies.
Christine Wilson (McMaster University)
Thursday, January 30, 2014
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
Gas and Star Formation in Nearby Galaxies: New Results From the
Abstract:
The availability of new instruments and telescopes is making it possible to study large, well-selected samples of nearby galaxies at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. These observations trace the cold, dense gas and dust which is the fuel for star formation. I will discuss new results from the Herschel Space Observatory from the Very Nearby Galaxies Survey, which aims to observe the closest example of each major class of galaxy with all the photometric and spectroscopic modes that Herschel has available. Our results include evidence for the primary heating source of much of the dust emission in normal galaxies, an increase in the gas to dust ratio in the vicinity of the central engine in Centaurus A, and a component of very hot molecular gas seen via high frequency CO emission lines that dominates the CO luminosity of starburst and merging galaxies.
Kate Rubin (CfA)
Thursday, December 12, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
The Gaseous Environments of Low-Mass Galaxies at z~2
Abstract:
The environments extending several hundred kiloparsecs from galaxies both contain the fuel that feeds galactic star formation as well as act as the reservoir into which ejecta from stellar and AGN feedback are driven. Observations of the cool hydrogen and metal content of these regions (i.e., the circumgalactic medium, or CGM) can therefore provide incisive tests of our understanding of these processes. I will briefly discuss current constraints on the content of the CGM around massive Lyman Break Galaxies and QSO hosts at z~2. I will then describe a new technique that pinpoints much fainter, sub-luminous systems at this epoch, allowing us to probe the gas in their surroundings in absorption toward background QSOs for the first time. These measurements reveal the incidence and spatial distribution of the cool HI and metal enrichment in the lowest-mass halos at the peak of cosmic star formation activity.
Christine Chen (STScI)
Thursday, December 5, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
The Origin and Evolution of Dust and Gas in Debris Disks
Abstract:
Debris disks are dusty, gas-poor disks around young stars, generated by collisions between parent bodies and/or sublimation of comets. The Spitzer Space Telescope has enabled photometric searches and detailed spectroscopic studies of thermal emission from dust in hundreds of debris disks at mid- to far-infrared wavelengths. These observations allow us: (1) to infer the spatial structure of dust in individual systems and determine how the dust grains are removed; (2) to measure the disk fraction (in young associations and moving groups) as a function of age to constrain the mechanism that triggers collisions; and (3) to place constraints on the mass of circumstellar molecular hydrogen and therefore models for giant planet formation. In this talk, I will discuss the spatial structure and removal mechanisms of dust in debris disks, and constraints on the models for the formation of gas giants and the late-stages of solar system evolution. I will also describe outstanding questions about debris disk evolution that will be addressed using future ground- and space-based instruments.
Dominik Riechers (Cornell)
Thursday, November 21, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
Fueling Cosmic Star Formation: The Molecular Interstellar Medium
Abstract:
Submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) are thought to represent the link between high-redshift star-forming galaxies and passive early type galaxies, with the huge merger driven bursts consuming up most of the available gas and driving the morphological transition to a spheroid. These hyper-luminous high-z galaxies commonly trace regions of high galaxy overdensity, and may be directly related to the formation of galaxy clusters and their giant central ellipticals. Molecular gas plays a central role in our understanding of the nature of these often heavily obscured systems. It represents the material that stars form out of, and its mass, distribution, excitation, and dynamics provide crucial insight into the physical processes that support the ongoing star formation and stellar mass buildup. I will discuss the most recent progress in studies of gas-rich galaxies at high redshift through large submillimeter surveys with the Herschel Space Observatory and detailed follow-up studies of the molecular gas properties of SMGs with CARMA, the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), the Plateau de Bure interferometer, and the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA).
Chris Hayward (Heidelberg, Germany)
Thursday, November 14, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
Advances in galaxy-formation simulations: calculating mock obser
Abstract:
Galaxy formation has been studied using idealized numerical simulations of isolated disk galaxies and galaxy mergers for decades, but most simulations performed to date have suffered from two potentially significant limitations: First, when comparing simulations with observations, physical quantities - rather than observables - from the simulations are used. Second, the most-commonly used techniques, smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and adaptive mesh refinement, suffer from numerical inaccuracies that can potentially jeopardize the results of simulations performed with those techniques. I will discuss methods for solving both of these limitations. I address the first limitation by performing 3-D dust radiative transfer on hydrodynamical simulations to calculate spatially resolved UV-mm spectral energy distributions of simulated galaxies. I will present an application to submillimeter galaxies, for which a realistic comparison with observables yields results that are qualitatively different from those of more naive comparisons. I address the second limitation by using the more-accurate moving-mesh hydrodynamics code Arepo. I will discuss how merger simulations performed with the moving-mesh technique differ from otherwise identical simulations performed using SPH. Finally, based on this comparison and other work, I will outline the types of galaxy-formation simulations for which the traditional formulation of SPH is sufficiently accurate and describe when and why this is not the case.
Reka Winslow (University of British Columbia)
Thursday, October 31, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
Investigation of Mercury's magnetospheric and surface magnetic
Abstract:
Mercury’s proximity to the Sun and its low magnetic field strength lead to dynamic interactions of the solar wind with the magnetosphere as well as with the planet’s surface, which are unique in the solar system. MESSENGER, having been in orbit about Mercury since March 2011, has made important discoveries of this exciting magnetospheric environment. In this talk, I will discuss some aspects of Mercury’s magnetosphere, paying special attention to the bow shock, magnetopause, and cusp regions as well as to the planet’s internal magnetic field. I will discuss how we characterized the time-averaged shape and location of Mercury’s magnetopause and bow shock, as well as established these boundaries’ responses to the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field. I will also describe the first observations of Mercury’s northern cusp region using Magnetometer data, and our estimates of the flux of precipitating particles to the surface. Finally, I will discuss a novel adaptation of the electron reflectometry technique in which we use protons precipitating to the surface (observed by the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer onboard MESSENGER) to acquire the first measurements of Mercury’s surface magnetic field strength.
Marc Postman (STScI)
Thursday, October 24, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
The Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH)
Abstract:
The Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH), a 524-orbit Multi-Cycle Treasury Program, completed its observations this past July. CLASH uses the gravitational lensing properties of 25 galaxy clusters to address at least 4 key science objectives: (1) Map the dark matter distribution in clusters with unprecedented accuracy, (2) Detect type Ia supernova out to z~2 to constrain their rates, the time evolution of the dark energy equation of state and the evolution of SN Ia themselves, (3) Detect and characterize some of the most distant galaxies (z > 7), and (4) study the internal structure and evolution of the galaxies in and behind the clusters. The survey obtained broadband images of the clusters in 16 passbands, providing remarkable panchromatic coverage from 0.2 - 1.6 microns, all with HST-quality resolution. I will present highlights from each of the 4 main science objectives.
Roman Shchebarkov (Univ. of Maryland)
Thursday, October 17, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
Feeding and Feedback in Nearby Low-luminosity AGNs.
Abstract:
Most galaxies in the Universe host low-luminosity AGNs. These systems exhibit a vast range of dynamical and radiative effects, which require high sensitivity and high angular resolution to study. The closest objects with the largest central supermassive black holes are revealing their secrets with the improvement of instrumentation. I will review recent progress on observing with Chandra and modeling of the accretion flow onset regions in Sgr A* and NGC3115. The hot accretion flow in these sources is shaped by the combined effects of (1) radius-dependent mass injection by stellar winds, (2) galactic gravitational potential, (3) small-scale feedback such as conduction, and (4) supernova feedback. The natural outcomes of modeling are the virial/supervirial gas temperature and inhibited accretion with shallow density profile.
Massimo Stiavelli (STScI)
Thursday, October 10, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
Reionization and first light studies using space telescopes: an
Abstract:
I will discuss what existing data tell us about the reionization of the Universe and the role played by faint galaxies including some new results derived by constraining the faint end of the luminosity function at redshift 6 using a form of surface brightness fluctuations analysis. I will also discuss expectations for the JWST contribution in this field. Moving to higher redshift I will discuss how JWST will study the first galaxies and the constraints it could place on the first stars by studying their supernovae.
Laura Cadonati (UMass)
Thursday, October 3, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
Progress towards gravitational wave astronomy
Abstract:
The quest for gravitational waves is reaching a key milestone as Advanced LIGO is approaching completion and science runs are scheduled to begin in 2015. In this talk, I will review the status and timelines of second generation gravitational wave detectors and the prospected observing scenarios over the next decade, with focus on searches for gravitational wave transients, the ability to localize gravitational wave sources and the ongoing efforts towards coincident searches of gravitational wave and electromagnetic signatures.
Kate Whitaker (GSFC)
Thursday, September 26, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
The Quenching of Star Formation in Massive Galaxies
Abstract:
Nearby galaxies exhibit a bimodal color distribution, where actively star-forming galaxies have blue colors and quiescent galaxies have red colors. It is generally thought that red galaxies arise from blue galaxies when star formation is quenched. However, the origin of this color bimodality remains unknown. Furthermore, it is not well understood how actively star-forming galaxies quench and migrate to form the well-defined color-mass relation, known as the “red sequence”. In this talk, direct evidence is presented that the massive end of the red sequence is most-rapidly building up when the universe was only 3 billion years old, with an influx of young recently quenched galaxies that are almost non-existent over the past 8 billion years. Presenting recent results from the 3D-HST Survey, I will discuss the properties of these massive galaxies in the context of current galaxy formation and evolution theories.
Jason Kalirai (STScI)
Thursday, September 19, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
Exploring the Stellar Graveyard of the Milky Way
Abstract:
Abstract: 98% of all stars will end their lives as white dwarfs. In old stellar populations, such as globular clusters and stellar halos, the bulk of the progenitor stellar mass function above the present day turnoff is therefore now populated on the white dwarf cooling sequence. These remnants have remarkable properties and can be studied in exquisite detail to reveal their temperatures, gravities, and masses. In this talk, I will describe unprecedented HST imaging and Keck spectroscopic observations of these stars in old stellar populations. This work has led to the first global constraints on the mapping between initial stellar mass and final mass, and therefore has broad applications for understanding stellar evolution theory, mass loss, and chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. Additionally, through a new technique, I will describe how we can invert the process of stellar evolution to establish a relation between the remnant mass in an old stellar population and the parent age. By applying this technique to nearby Milky Way halo stars, we measure the age of the inner halo of the Milky Way to be 11.4 ± 0.7 Gyr.
Daniela Calzetti (UMass)
Thursday, September 12, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
KINGFISH, or Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-Infrared Su
Abstract:
TBABy targeting the far-infrared and sub-millimeter regime with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution, the Herschel Space Telescope has provided new insights into both the phenomenology and the physics of dust emission from galaxies. I review the results obtained so far by KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel), an Herschel Open Time Key Project, and by similar projects on galaxies within the local ~30 Mpc, where Herchel affords a spatial resolution better than ~ 0.8-5 kpc, and can thus probe the variety of environments within galaxies.
William Irvine (UMass)
Thursday, May 2, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
The Development of Astronomy & Astrobiology in the Five College
Abstract:
The last 180 years of astronomy at the institutions now known as the Five Colleges include: students arriving at college by stage coach; an observatory built as an octagon; a famous poet; an infamous, illicit love affair; pioneering observations from the Chilean desert; early astrobiology; the first SETI, more than 100 years ago; the first astronomical observations from an artificial platform above the earth’s surface; an innovative way to augment department budgets; discrimination against women in astronomy; the Layzer-Irvine equation; the Hapke-Irvine Law; a 100-ft long absorption cell for infrared spectroscopy; telescopes built with telephone poles and chicken wire; a Nobel prize; the Rydbeck factor; the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory; new interstellar molecules; viruses from space and a new physical/biological measurement unit; a phony press release picked up by the media; giving the International Halley Watch FITS; and, after 800 years, a Scottish coat-of-arms with a comet (Halley’s, of course).
John O'Meara (Saint Michael's College)
Thursday, April 25, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
Rediscovering the Universe at Redshift 3
Abstract:
The 1990's saw revolution of our understanding of the high redshift universe through the advent of 10 meter class telescopes and the application of large scale computer simulations to cosmology. Since that time, new advances in instrumentation and simulation have pushed the techniques from high redshift to more recent epochs. In this talk, I will discuss how we have returned to the universe at z~3 with new technologies, theories, and techniques, and how these advances can re-revolutionize our understanding of the universe over all cosmic times.
Debra Elmegreen (Vassar College)
Thursday, April 11, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
Local Analogs of Early Universe Galaxies
Abstract:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field in the redshift range z=1 to 5 is dominated by clumpy galaxies, whose kiloparsec-scale star-forming complexes have masses 100x greater than similar complexes in local spirals. The clumps evidently form from gravitational instabilities following gas accretion, and the galaxies transform into the familiar disk morphologies of nearby spirals after a Gyr. Though rare, there are UV-bright local analogs of these distant clumpy galaxies that appear to be at an early evolutionary stage. I will compare star formation properties of local and distant galaxies based on photometry and spectroscopy, and present recent observations of local tadpole galaxies that show evidence for accretion of metal-poor gas.
Jeff Bary (Colgate )
Thursday, March 28, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
The Importance of Being Duplicitous: Why Binarity Matters
Abstract:
In spite of the depiction of Luke Skywalker's home planet of Tatooine as orbiting two suns, astronomers have long assumed that such systems would be difficult if not impossible to form and remain stable. Recently, the Kepler space telescope has discovered several exoplanetary systems (Kepler 16-b, 34-b, 35-b, 47-b, and 47-c) in which the planet(s) orbit(s) both of the host stars. These recent detections highlight the importance of binary and higher order multiple systems to our overall understanding of the processes that lead to the formation of planets. In this talk, recent observational studies comprised of multi-epoch spectroscopic monitoring and high-spatial resolution spectral imaging of two distinctly different young binary systems will be presented. With both observational programs we seek to reveal the underlying dynamical complexity of such systems and the interactions between the stellar cores, the circumstellar disks, and circumbinary disk.
Helen Kirk (McMaster University)
Thursday, March 14, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
Filamentary Flows and Clustered Star Formation
Abstract:
Most stars, including our Sun, are thought to have formed within a stellar cluster, yet much of the star formation process within this type of environment is poorly constrained. Recent results from the Herschel Space Telescope hint that dense filaments of gas and dust are intimately linked with star formation, for both isolated stars and clustered systems. Several models also predict the importance of filaments in cluster formation, but observations of the key predicted processes are limited. I will present results from a Mopra survey of the Serpens South system which addresses this lack of observations. Serpens South is a recently discovered young cluster forming deeply embedded within a prominent dense filament. As such, it provides an ideal testbed for the scenario of significant mass accretion onto clusters via filaments. I will finish by discussing ways in which numerical simulations of star formation can be used to gain a deeper understanding of the processes involved, highlighting ongoing efforts of the group at McMaster University.
B-G Anderson (SOFIA)
Thursday, March 7, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
Status of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy
Abstract:
The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is now performing scientific observations and the Call for Proposals for the second open observing cycle is about to be released (late April). With an available wavelength coverage from the visual to sub-mm wavelengths and a long life time - including planned instrument upgrades, SOFIA will provide critical resource for the astronomical community for the next decade and beyond. Current and expected SOFIA instruments provide heterodyne spectroscopy in the THz band, including the line of [O I], [C II] and [N II] as well as OH, HD and many other hydrides, at high spectral resolution. Echelle spectroscopy in the Mid-infrared (MIR) which will allow observations of e.g. fine-structure lines of and H2 pure rotational lines. These will help address questions of interstellar chemistry and physics in star forming regions, PDRs and galaxies. Mid-infrared (MIR) grism spectroscopy, of e.g. dust and ices, can be used to address questions of the freeze-out of molecules from the gas phase to better understand the formation, destruction and characteristics of interstellar ices. Imaging in the MIR and FIR and FIR polarimetry can provide a more complete picture of the temperature, density and magnetic field structure of e.g. star forming cores. I will highlight the current and expected capabilities of SOFIA and some of the early science results achieved.
Robert Feldman (University of California, Berkeley)
Thursday, February 28, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
It's the law - The role of star formation laws for galaxy evolut
Abstract:
Empirical relations connecting star formation and the interstellar medium form the basis of many theoretical models of galaxy evolution. After reviewing the current observational status (and its limitations) of star formation laws, I will show what role they play for the evolution of various global galaxy properties. Observations of the mass-metallicity relation and of the cosmic star formation history, in particular, put stringent constraints on the actual functional relationship between star formation and the gas reservoir of galaxies. These results point towards a very simple and essentially time-independent star formation law that encapsulates most aspects of star formation relevant for the evolution of average galaxy properties across cosmic history.
Aaron Dutton (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg)
Thursday, February 21, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
Star Formation, Galaxy Formation and the Nature of Dark Matter
Abstract:
The distribution of dark matter in galaxies provides a non-linear scale cosmological test of dark matter models. However, the utility of this test is at present limited by our lack of knowledge about how dark matter haloes respond to galaxy formation, and form of the stellar initial mass function. I will discuss recent progress in constraining these unknowns, including methods based on galaxy scaling relations and strong gravitational lensing. Finally, I will describe how the relation between stellar mass and galaxy rotation velocity (also known as the Tully-Fisher relation) together with the stellar mass function can be used to place constraints on the temperature of warm dark matter candidates.
Michael Boylan-Kolchin (University of California, Irvine)
Thursday, February 14, 2013
3:45 p.m.
LGRT 1033
Title:
Near-Field Cosmology: Big Science From Small Galaxies
Abstract:
Near-Field Cosmology: Big Science From Small Galaxies

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